Although these statuses were defined by ethnic terms, they did not have to reflect the actual ethnicity of the individual. These ethnic labels were in reality strongly tied to culture and occupation. Teachers and actors were given similar exemptions because they were seen as promoters of Greek culture.
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Large workshops in Egypt turned raw materials into finished products such as dyed cloths, jewellery, and artworks, which were sold domestically or exported throughout the ancient world. Both free labourers and slaves toiled in these workshops to weave and craft the finished products.
For much of Egyptian history, linen was the preferred textile, but this began to change in the Ptolemaic period.
The Economy of Ptolemaic Egypt - Ancient History Encyclopedia
Wool was the preferred garment of the Greek settlers who immigrated to Egypt during the reign of the Ptolemies, and new industries emerged to supply their needs. To this end, sheep from regions such as Milos in Greece were imported. The traffic of cosmetics, medicines, and perfumes was an important industry in Ptolemaic Egypt. Although some of the ingredients for these products had to be imported, many were also produced domestically as Egypt had rich agricultural and mineral resources.
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Glass and pottery were also important products, used for a variety of purposes ranging from everyday eating and drinking vessels to more refined jewellery and art. Egyptian faience was particularly sought after throughout the Mediterranean for its glossy texture and bright colour.
Egypt had been an important centre of trade for millennia, but the volume and reach of Egyptian trade multiplied during the Ptolemaic period. Alexandria was purposely placed at the crossroads of Africa , Asia, and Europe to encourage commerce, and the city developed into one of the most important commercial hubs of the ancient Mediterranean. Mediterranean goods flowed into Alexandria to feed the cultural appetites of a rapidly growing Hellenistic metropolis.
Greek wine and pottery from regions like Crete and Cyprus were particularly heavy imports to the capital. Wine and other goods were also imported from the Italian peninsula, with Roman-Egyptian trade becoming increasingly important in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE. Port cities on the Egyptian the Red Sea coast were conduits of both maritime and overland trade to Egypt from Asia and Africa.
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Various Arabian polities acted as intermediaries for Egyptian-Near Eastern trade, and Arabia itself was an important source of items like frankincense and myrrh. Silver was imported from the Near East to help supplement Egypt's lack of adequate silver resources. Chinese silk , tortoiseshell, and exotic spices were imported as expensive luxury items. Besides spices, India was a primary source of war elephants for the Ptolemaic army.
The fact that this trade had to be conducted overland meant that, by the 2nd century BCE, the expansion of the Seleucid Empire had cut off the Ptolemaic Kingdom's access to war elephants. The need for an alternate source was a key factor in the increase of Ptolemaic trade with East Africa. However, these African elephants proved to be no match for their Indian counterparts and their use was discontinued after the Battle of Raphia BCE.
Trade between Egypt and other parts of Northeast and East Africa was highly lucrative during the Ptolemaic period. Trading posts and small cities on the Nubian border in the Dodekaschoinos were an important source of gold and exotic game animals. Ptolemaic maritime trade on the East African coast extended as far south as cities like Sarapion and Nikon in modern-day Somalia.
Ivory, gold, and frankincense were some of the more important goods in this coastal trade due to the high prices they fetched on the Egyptian market. A wide array of ivory furniture, artworks, and personal ornaments were created in Ptolemaic Egypt at this time as the material was both exotic and easily carved. The Roman state did not completely uproot the old systems of the Ptolemaic administration. Most of the royal bureaucratic offices were replaced by Roman officials. Land which had formerly belonged to the Ptolemaic crown was reorganised into ager publicus or public land, and the rents and taxes they generated were paid directly to the Roman treasury.
Even the closed monetary system was retained until CE. Certain regions of Egypt, particularly Upper Egypt, were subject to harsh taxation which led to several revolts within the first few years of Roman rule. The Hellenistic system of landed soldiers was dismantled and replaced by the garrisoning of Roman legions in Egypt. Becoming a part of the Roman Empire also meant integrating into what is often considered to be the earliest example of a global economy, with all of its upsides and downsides.
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Managing the Egyptian economy Instead of uprooting Egyptian tradition, the Ptolemaic dynasty incorporated pre-existing administrative practices when they assumed control of Egypt in the late 4th century BCE. Remove Ads Advertisement. Bibliography Von Reden, S. Edipuglia, Bari, , Chauveau, M. Tennessee State University hired Humphries as its president in He served in the post until , when he returned, once again, to his alma mater—this time as its president.
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In Johnson was appointed president of Fisk University—the first African American to hold the position. As president of Howard University in Washington, D. Johnson became a highly respected minister, educator, and orator of international note. Johnson was the son of former slaves. He transferred to Atlanta Baptist College, now known as Morehouse College, where he completed the secondary and undergraduate programs. He taught at the college for a year, then continued his studies at the University of Chicago where he received a second undergraduate degree.
In he took a leave of absence to study at Harvard University Divinity School graduating in June of In , when he was years old, Johnson was elected 11th president and the first African American president of Howard University. Johnson first concentrated on providing financial stability for the school. Starting with the medical school, he received solid support from the Julius Rosenwald Fund and the General Education Board. One of its most notable graduates was Thurgood Marshall. The law school also engaged in research and analysis involving important civil rights issues that went before the court.
During the first half of his tenure, Johnson faced sharp criticism because he lacked a terminal academic degree and because some faculty and staff opposed his administrative style. He survived the controversy, maintained the support of the board of trustees, and continued fruitful contacts with foundations for financial support. He attracted outstanding scholars to the Howard faculty including philosopher Alain Locke, cell biologist Ernest E. Just, chemist Percy Julian, political scientist Ralph Bunche, historian Rayford Logan, and Charles Drew, who became known for his work with blood plasma.
Johnson also erected new buildings and founded several honor societies on campus including a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa. Johnson traveled widely; his lectures, given without notes, often lasted 45 minutes and held audiences spellbound. His themes often focused on racism, segregation, and discrimination. He retired from the presidency of Howard in and died on September 10, , when he was 86 years old. He uplifted the community as well by helping uneducated men and women to enhance their lives. Jones was born on November 21, , in St. Joseph, Missouri, and worked his way to a degree from Iowa State University.
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